We can only begin to trace the Siddha tradition from the earliest writings found in the first century A.D. There was a country known as Kumari nadu that extended beyond what is now known as Kanyakumari, the southern most tip of India.
Kumari Nadu is now lying submerged in the Indian Ocean and has been identified as Lemuria, "the sunken continent." It occupied a large area of the Indian Ocean and touched Australia in the South and Africa in the West.
How did it sink? It is said that from 30,000 BC to 2,700 BC, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions caused landslips affecting the earth and the ocean beds.
The Lemurians migrated to Asia, Australia, North and South America, the Nile Valley where they founded the Egyptian civilization and the continent of Atlantis between Europe and North America.
According to Geology, this southern end of India, particularly Tamil Nadu, is among the oldest land mass in the world and has never been covered by the ocean.
When the earth began to erupt and change, a great Siddha named Agastyar moved to an area north of what is now Trivandrum in Kerala.
This is where the civilization of the Yoga Siddhas was born.
The earliest picture of India's past is the Indus Valley civilization. This was a highly developed culture. It is observed as a civilization of pre-vedic people of ancient India that existed 8,000 to 10,000 years before the Christian era and identify it as that of the Dravidians- the world's oldest civilization.
This also shows the history of Saivism (worship of the Shiva) as being the most ancient living faith in the world, first developed by the Dravidians in southern India.
According to Indian mythology, Ayurveda was first perceived by Brahma (the Supreme God) and then handed down through the years to various stages. Dhanvantri (patron God of physicians) is noted by some, to be the Father of Ayurveda, bringing the information back from the Gods to relieve human suffering.
The history of Ayurveda goes back as far as the Indus Valley Civilization as does the Siddha Tradition. This shows their symbiotic relationship and even proof that they are one and the same, even they don't like to admit it. It is possible that the separation came because of religion. Ayurveda followed Brahma and the Vedic philosophy, Siddha followed Shiva and Shaivism philosophy. This is considered the Pre-Vedic Era between 3000 BC and 1500 BC. In 2000 BC a group of hunter-gatherers called Aryans moved into the Indus region from the northwest bringing with them a religion and a mind-expanding elixir called soma. Their religious concepts were recorded as the Vedas and were divinely inspired. Known as the Rishis, these holy men received information from the Supreme Source. They recognized the unity of all that is and were able to transcend the human sense of duality. They fostered a deep relationship with nature and held great respect for the plants they used.
Between 1500 BC and 800 BC, the most respected texts on Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, were written. The Charaka is the earliest Ayurvedic text and begins by telling of the gathering of all the holy men and healers in the Indus Valley. Their intention was to gather divine information which would end disease and suffering so the population could concentrate on reaching enlightenment. The information was transmitted from Brahma. The Sushrita is a classic text on surgeries. These surgeries were not successfully performed in the west until the late 1800's AD. In this text Dhanvantri brings information back from the Gods.
Between 500 BC and 1000 AD, Ayurveda reached the heights of its development. During the medieval period, India was invaded by Alexander the Great and Ayurvedic concepts filtered back to Greece and evolved into the four humor theory based upon the four elements and was practiced in Europe for the next 2000 years. For a period of time, medicine in Europe was very similar to Ayurveda. It is thought that the fourth humor was added by Hippocrates, the blood- for its importance in surgery. India was exposed to frequent foreign invasions during this time and new discoveries in science came to a standstill. During these times of war, many original works were destroyed. Whatever remained had to be handed down orally. Individuals received the information and in their own interpretations have created many avenues of Ayurveda, but the foundation of basic philosophy is strong among all lineages.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Ayurveda was given a new life. Currently, Ayurveda is the vogue alternative medicine, affecting western medicine for a third time. A great possibility exists that Ayurveda can be combined with other schools of thought to make all treatment methods more effective, becoming part of a global medical system.